(This post was last updated April 29, 2020.)
This overview/guide takes 12 minutes to read.
To avoid an ADA Website Compliance demand letter or lawsuit, here are the best practices for 2020:
- Have your website or app manually audited using WCAG 2.0 AA or 2.1 AA standards
- Remediate or fix your website to address the issues found in your audit
- Create and publish an accessibility policy page that states steps you have taken, your commitment
- Do not buy any instant fixes or fully automated solutions (these are a waste of money)
Here are some quick bullet points website owners/consumers should be aware of:
- 15 employees threshold for ADA compliance is a myth
- Don’t buy overlays – they don’t make your website accessible
- Plaintiffs’ lawyers are filing lawsuits as fast as they can
- No one is immune from demand letters including small businesses (e.g., I’ve seen bloggers get sued)
- You can easily waste money buying bad services or products you don’t need
- You can be sued in any state under federal or state law
- Website accessibility is a process, it doesn’t happen overnight so get started
So how do you make your website, app, etc. accessible?
WCAG 2.0 AA is the currently recognized global technical standard for web accessibility. In the United States, it is not the law but it is frequently cited to as a reference for how to make your website accessible by courts.
WCAG 2.1 AA adds 12 updated success criteria (think of these as to-do items) that work on top of 2.0. Stated another way, 2.1 includes all of the success criteria in 2.0 + 12 newer bullet points.
WCAG stands for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines. Think of WCAG as the “what to do” stage in your process of becoming accessible.
Lawsuit Note: California, New York, and Florida are where most web disability discrimination lawsuits are filed. In 2019 and 2020, California and New York state courts have experienced a surge in filings under their respective state anti-discrimination laws, the Unruh Act in California and the New York State/City Human Rights Law.
These laws run parallel to the Americans with Disabilities Act but provide a way for plaintiffs to recover damages in state court unlike the ADA.
Critical Note: As a website owner, you are subject to the ADA. You do not need 15 employees to be subject to the ADA because websites are considered places of public accommodation which subjects them to Title III of the ADA. Title III does not have the 15 employee threshold, that’s Title I which is entirely separate.
The WCAG links above will immediately get you to my quick bullet point checklists and larger, more in-depth guides. The rest of this post will delve into the legal side of compliance and the practical aspect of making your website accessible. Here are the highlights:
- How to legally ace accessibility (for larger entities)
- The legal landscape
- 15 employees myth
- Estimated cost of accessibility
- Evaluating products and services
- Vague, unhelpful accessibility language from products
Legal Compliance vs. Accessibility
ADA website compliance and web accessibility are two terms that are used interchangeably but they are distinct from one another.
ADA stands for the Americans with Disabilities Act which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. Courts are construing Title III of the ADA to mean that websites must be accessible. Thus, with ADA website compliance, we’re referring to the law.
Web accessibility refers to making your digital offerings accessible (website, apps, documents, software, presentations, etc.) or how accessible your offerings are.
The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are the standards that we use to ensure our websites are accessible.
WCAG is not the law for private entities in the U.S. so it’s okay if your website doesn’t 100% comply with it but, optimally, your website will meet all WCAG success criteria.
WCAG is frequently cited by U.S. courts but it is not the law – just because you don’t technically meet every last success criterion under WCAG 2.0 AA doesn’t mean your website is in violation of the ADA. In fact, multiple authorities have stated that we have flexibility in how we make our websites accessible.
However, as most cases settle and never reach the merits of the court room, I recommend trying to conform to all WCAG 2.0 success criteria.
Practically, in terms of preventing lawsuits, it’s extremely important to get your WAVE errors down to 0. WAVE is an automated accessibility checker that you can add as a browser extension that shows accessibility errors and alerts on a website. Is it is commonly used by plaintiffs’ law firms as the basis for claims.
Legal Best Practices
By way of some consent decrees (basically settlements) entered into by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and private entities found to have inaccessible websites by the DOJ, here are some best practices as called for by the DOJ:
- Appoint a web accessibility coordinator
- Hire a qualified, independent consultant
- Conduct web accessibility training twice a year
- Create an accessibility policy page
- Invite and solicit feedback
For smaller businesses and organizations, the cost won’t make sense to have a web accessibility coordinator or extensive training but for larger entities such as corporations, appointing one individual to oversee all digital accessibility is beneficial.
If you want to get technical, there is no black letter law that says websites of private entities must be ADA compliant (ADA refers to the Americans with Disabilities Act). However, that’s not a debate you want to have in U.S. district court (by then you’ve already lost money and expended tremendous time and energy).
Title III of the ADA applies to private entities that are places of public accommodation which means organizations, non-profits, businesses (even just sole proprietors and entrepreneurs), companies, and large corporations are subject to ADA Compliance.
As an attorney, I always advocate what I call “legal prevention” which means that you avoid legal entanglement when at all possible. Of course, since there is no actual law on the books requiring accessibility of websites of private entities, we have a great technical argument but that’s law school theory-based stuff. In the real world, there’s a real expense to defending against ADA Website Compliance claims.
You have have heard of Section 508 and Section 504 in the digital accessibility discussion. Here’s the story with 508 and 504:
Section 508 is an amendment (1998) to the Rehabilitation Act that requires government agencies to make electronic and information technology (including websites) accessible to those with disabilities. Section 504 takes 508 a step further by requiring accessibility of recipients of federal funding.
Back to the ADA.
The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability and says that places of public accommodation (including private commercial enterprises) need to make accommodations for the disabled (42 U.S.C. § 12182). Importantly, a place of public accommodation, per 42 U.S.C. § 12181(7), amounts to a privately operated facility whose operations affect commerce. However, since the ADA came pre Internet era, the ADA didn’t contemplate or mention websites or apps.
In 2010, the DOJ issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) called the Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability; Accessibility of Web Information and Services of State and Local Government Entities and Public Accommodations. An ANPRM is not law but a published notice in the Federal Register used by an agency to feel out its proposal and get feedback/comments before making it a rule; It’s a prudent move by federal agencies to try and get everything right before making a law.
The DOJ’s 2010 ANPRM made it clear that a rule for web accessibility was coming and asked whether WCAG 2.0 AA success criterion should be used or whether the existing 508 standards were best.
Although no formal rule was published, in March of 2014, the DOJ began entering consent decrees (basically settlements) with private companies using WCAG 2.0 AA as the standard for website accessibility. Here is the first consent decree against HR Block.
Piggybacking on these consent decrees, private law firms have been increasingly (and ever more aggressively) sending demand letters to corporations (e.g. Amazon, Target, Hershey’s, Bank of America, Bed Bath & Beyond, Hulu, Charles Schwab, Safeway, CNN, etc.) threatening lawsuit if demands weren’t met. Most companies choose to settle vs. a legal battle but some including Dominos Pizza and Winn-Dixie have gone all the way to litigation.
In Robles v. Dominos Pizza LLC (Case No. 42 CV 16-06599 SJO (C.D. Cal. Mar. 20, 2017)), a federal court in California dismissed a class action lawsuit against Dominos, accepting the defandants due process defense. In a nutshell, the court found Dominos does have to make accessibility accommodations but because the plaintiff was trying to hold them to technical standards that weren’t promulgated by law, the case was dismissed.
In the landmark Carlos Gil v. Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc., Civil Action No. 16–23020 (S.D. Fla.) (first ADA website compliance case to go to trial), U.S. District Judge Robert Scola ruled against Winn-Dixie, finding that their website was indeed a place of public accommodation and that WCAG 2.0 guidelines were the de facto standard.
With US District Courts making incongruent decisions without actual law, the DOJ needed to step up and lay down formal regulations.
The Department of Justice was set to announce formal regulations for ADA website compliance in 2018 but those plans were scrapped when the Trump DOJ took over and nixed the Obama administration DOJ’s plans.
This is where the current legal situation lies.
Most corporate entities and companies are settling in non-public settlements. Plaintiff’s attorneys and law firms have swarmed like locusts in attacking the deepest pockets they can threaten.
These very real threats have lead to a whole new niche industry with more and more plaintiffs’ lawyers joining the fray. This, in turn, has led to smaller entities – including sole proprietors – getting hit with demand letters.
I highly recommend small businesses, companies, corporations, organizations, etc. take a proactive approach to web compliance and get started.
The 15 Employees ADA Myth
I get this question a lot:
Does the ADA apply to me if I have less than 15 employees?
Since courts are now considering websites as places of public accommodation, you can absolutely fall under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
The 15 employees threshold refers to Title I of the ADA which speaks to discrimination in employment. Basically, with Title I, with respect to employment discrimination, you must be ADA compliant if you have 15 or more employees.
However, you can have fewer than 15 employees and still fall under Title III of the ADA as a place of public accommodation because Title I and Title III of the ADA are entirely separate and regulate two different areas of discrimination: one in regards to employment and the other in regards to dealing with the general public.
Instead of a website, let’s imagine you own an Italian restaurant in New York. At your restaurant, you have 14 employees on staff.
Because you have less than 15 employees, do you avoid the ADA and requirements to make your restaurant accessible (e.g. entry width specifications, wheel chair accessibility, etc.)?
You won’t fall under the Title I requirements of employment discrimination but you will fall under Title III requirements because your establishment would be considered a place of public accommodation open to the general public.
So as far as websites go, you don’t need to have 15 employees to be subject to the ADA.
For further guidance in reducing exposure to lawsuit and becoming ADA compliant, The ADA Book (available at ADABook.com) is a tremendous resource (written by me).
How much does it cost to make your website accessible?
There are three purchases I recommended in my best practices list above. Let’s go over each.
An audit is going to identify all of the accessibility issues on your website per WCAG 2.0 or 2.1 AA.
When you hire someone for an independent audit, make absolutely sure that you’re getting back a manual audit and not simply a report of an automated scan.
You can get automated scan results for free by installing a browser extension like WAVE or AXE Core.
Many clients email me after initially paying a few thousand dollars for an automated report, thinking they found a cheaper option when they ended up paying $1,000 – $2,500 for something they could have had for free.
A full manual audit will typically cost between $1,200 and $12,000.
The price depends on how many unique page layouts your website has, how complex or dynamic it is, and the current state of accessibility (does it have a lot of issues or not many).
Remediation means the actual fixing of a website to be accessible.
With remediation, an agency will make all the updates to your site as called for by the audit. If you have a skilled and knowledgeable developer, you can do this yourself – and, for many clients, I recommend taking this approach as it can save a lot of money.
If the website is super simple or there isn’t much to correct, remediation will be fairly inexpensive, maybe as cheap as $500.
However, usually, the cost of remediating a website is $4,000+.
Restaurant, hotel, and bank websites can expect to pay more because their websites are more dynamic in nature vs. websites that are static.
Although accessibility policy pages do not make a website accessible, I highly-highly recommend them because plaintiffs’ lawyers continually call for them in their demand letters and lawsuits and as part of settlements.
Plaintiffs’ lawyers are also less likely to send a demand letter to a website with an accessibility policy.
A good policy will talk about your commitment to accessibility and display your past and ongoing efforts towards accessibility.
Contact me if you’d like me to create a custom policy for your organization.
What are the prices for products/services?
With website accessibility, price definitely should not be your sole criteria in deciding what service provider to choose.
Because there are many providers who will charge significantly less upfront (or even as a one-time charge) but you’ll end up getting little to nothing of material substance in return.
As a small business owner, I’d much rather pay an upfront cost of $15,000 – $25,000 for a one-time audit and remediation than pay $500 and install a worthless overlay that still leaves me completely vulnerable to a lawsuit.
You can get a great idea on the cost of web accessibility services available at my company website, Accessible.org.
There are several companies that offer services (WebAIM, BOIA, Deque, Paciello Group, UsableNet, LevelAccess, SiteImprove, etc.). An easy way to filter through the field is by those who offer automated vs. manual solutions.
Any company that is rooted in automation as a complete or near complete solution, stay away.
Automated products are fine but they should acknowledge that they’re not a complete solution. If any vendor pushes automation or software for full or near ADA compliance, 508 compliance, WCAG 2.0 AA or 2.1 conformance, etc. then that’s a great indicator that you’ll want to stay away.
Of course, software and subscription model services are constantly pushed but what vendors usually won’t reveal is the vast majority of websites won’t won’t need either.
Other than re-testing or conducting annual or semi-annual audits, you don’t need to be a subscriber to be accessible.
Corporate accounts will be different if they have ever-changing websites, new roll-outs, multiple apps, etc. In that case, an enterprise solution comes into play.
But for a small, mostly static website, think about it, if you successfully audit and remediate your website, why would you need to continually pay for an accessibility subscription unless you completely overhaul your website?
Many small businesses are tempted by the “automatic” overlay (clickable toolbar menu pop-up) path because it’s relatively cheap and fast.
Overlays are nearly worthless, whether you pay $1 or $500 for them. I always advise clients against them. Some clients think they help with preventing a lawsuit but as of March 2020, lawsuits are popping up where websites with toolbar overlays are getting sued (no surprise here – this was inevitable).
When you research products and services, it’s common to see a lot of false social proof: glowing testimonials from users with disabilities, 5-star reviews, endorsements from marketing influencers, and logos of Fortune 500 companies who are clients.
The testimonials are carefully curated.
The 5-star reviews are usually from affiliates who are promoting the product to get a commission.
The endorsements are obviously paid.
The logos are typically from independent international divisions of the major corporations.
In other words, it’s all a carefully crafted marketing scheme designed to make a product look more viable and legitimate than it really is.
What about automated scanning tools?
Accessibility checkers are a great way of determining some of the accessibility issues your website has. I recommend trying a few different scans to get a solid feel of where you need improvement.
WAVE is by far the most popular tool. It’s free.
AXE Core is another popular free browser extension.
Tenon.io by Karl Groves is a premium automated checker but it’s a good one and cost effective.
Keep in mind that these scans cannot catch all of the accessibility issues on a web page. In fact, depending on the page elements, they only detect about 1/3 of accessibility issues.
This isn’t a shortcoming, it’s just a reflection of the reality that website accessibility cannot be fully automated.
I always advise not to pay for scanning services and reports from vendors. These can be extremely expensive (thousands of dollars) and not provide much more information than the free scans.
Again, be careful when you hire an agency for an audit, that they’re manually going through your website and all of its primary page layouts. An automated scan should only be a supplement to an audit, not the full audit.
The “More Accessible” Trap
Look out for things (WordPress accessibility plugins, Shopify plugins, WP themes, services, etc.) that say they are “more accessible”.
WordPress and Shopify themes (and themes for other CMS platforms like Drupal) commonly have the generic “more accessible” and “WCAG 2.0” tags attached to them but you have to be extremely careful about buying them because these are more aspirational claims than reality.
Typically you’ll get a boost of accessible elements on your website but buying an accessible theme – premium or free – will not take care of everything for you.
Think of the phrase “more accessible” – what does that even mean?
It can mean anything.
It can mean one accessibility component is addressed or many have – we don’t know.
When researching products or services, you need to find out exactly what they do and what criteria they make your website meet.
When it comes to accessibility, demand specificity. Almost every vendor will say they meet WCAG 2.0 but you need to find out exactly how they do and do not. And it’s okay that they don’t. Virtually zero vendors can cross off every bullet point, but you need to be thorough so you know exactly where you’re deficient so you can shore that up.
For example, WIX and Square Space (online website creation software) hedge on whether their websites are accessible. I actually reviewed SquareSpace accessibility and I don’t see how you can make a website fully in conformance with WCAG on their platform.
Here’s another example I personally experienced:
I was specifically searching for an accessible live chat plugin for ADABook.com and I stumbled upon Olark.com. Olark claims accessibility with a specific page but then backtracks with very tepid language:
“We aim to adhere to the WCAG 2.0 accessibility guidelines for the code that our customers install on their websites. Our code is written so that the chatbox is navigable by keyboard using screen reader software.”
The takeaway here is what when you’re sourcing third-party digital offerings such as website builders or integrations (e.g. live chat, social streams, etc.), vet your vendor for accessibility and WCAG conformance.
If you see the “more accessible” song start to play, weigh the risk of moving forward.
Web Accessibility Consultants
If you need help with how to approach accessibility and organize efforts for your organization, a consultant can fast track your efforts.
Not only are the optics of hiring an independent consultant (the DOJ actually stipulates in multiple settlement agreements that companies hire a consultant as part of the settlement so it looks good to have on record that you hired one) good, there are several practical benefits. A consultant can:
- Perform a manual audit on your website
- Create a web accessibility plan
- Help you deal with vendors, evaluate products and services
- Educate your company on how to be accessible
- Relay status and next steps to executives, your coordinator
- Convey what needs to be done to web developers
- Institute a training program for your coordinator, web accessibility team
- Alert you of changes in accessibility, new best practices
- Answer your questions
- Conduct annual audits
In a Nutshell
In sum, there is no actual law that mandates web accessibility for private entities in the United States, but all of the legal momentum and resulting lawsuits requires your make your website, app, PDFs, etc. accessible.
The best reference on how to make your website accessible is WCAG. WCAG is difficult to get through so you will probably want a plain English explanation. You can get my 2.0 and 2.1 guides for free by subscribing to Accessible.org.
As a website owner, it’s important that you have a feel for both the technical and legal aspects to web accessibility as you’re ultimately responsible for your website’s state of accessibility.
Finally, be discerning in who you hire for services or what products you buy. Most products – especially overlays – do not substantially advance you in your efforts to become digitally accessible.
If you have any questions about ADA compliance/accessibility, you are welcome to email me at email@example.com.